How has urbanisation helped Nigeria to develop? The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. Its GDP per capita is $42,339 compared with the UK's at $38,920. What is the impact of humans on the temperate deciduous woodland? How did the temperate deciduous woodland get like this? The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig. The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano had a huge impact on air travel, changing the assessment of risk by the aviation sector and catalyzing new lines of scientific investigation. International migration from Syria to Europe, Japan – A country with a high dependent population. Landforms in the middle course of a river. How is a cold environment interdependent? Where are Temperate Deciduous Woodlands Located? Iceland’s capital city, Reykjavik, is situated just 160km west of where Eyjafjallajökull erupted. To achieve this, open-ended inter- The name is a description of the volcano with Eyja meaning island; fjalla meaning mountain; and jokull meaning glacier. Eyjafjallajökull Case Study 2. How has demand for water in the UK changed? What are the impacts of industry on the physical environment? Kenya normally exports up to 500 tonnes of flowers daily – 97% of which is delivered to Europe. Stakeholders in the air traffic industry were forced to reevaluate policies, safety standards, and guidelines … They are providing food for the farming population living in the vicinity of the glacier, as The mountain itself, a composite (stratovolcano) volcano, stands 1,651 metres (5,417 ft) at its highest point and has a crater 3–4 kilometres (1.9–2.5 mi) in diameter, open to the north. Also in response to Eyjafjallajökull's impact on air travel, ICAO formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in May 2010, charging it to examine how best to define hazardous airspace and manage aviation risk. What is Nigeria’s location and importance? What is the impact of humans on the savanna? 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, where it had serious conse-quences on farming. The European Union has developed an integrated structure for air traffic management. The last historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823 . Development, population change and the demographic transition model, Strategies for reducing the development gap, How can the growth of tourism reduce the development gap? Despite the problems caused by the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull, the eruption brought several benefits. Air operators lost millions of pounds each day. Eyjafjallajokull erupted between from March to May 2010. Why is the weather of the UK so changeable? How can the impacts of climate change be managed? How reliable are economic indicators of development? On 20 March 2010, Eyjafjallajökull, a volcano in Iceland, erupted for the first time in 190 years; this eruption was from a vent on the volcano’s flank (Swindles et al. What challenges are associated with the growth of Rio? The two plates are moving apart due to ridge push along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Primary effects: As the result of the eruption day turned to night with the ash blocking out the sun, rescuers wore face masks to prevent them from choking on the clouds of ash. As passengers looked for other ways to travel than flying, many different transport companies were able to benefit. If you've found the resources on this site useful please consider making a secure donation via PayPal to support the development of the site. Which landforms result from moving or melting ice? This resulted in massive impacts on air travel worldwide. What are the environmental impacts of economic development in Nigeria? Anak Krakatau & Sunda Strait Tsunami Indonesia Case Study 2018. Despite volcanic eruptions in earlier times, the eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull in April and May 2010 served as a climactic point in aviation history. At this boundary magma rises up between the plates and cools as it contacts the ocean. Coastal Environments CPD – Erosional Landforms, Coastal Management and Fieldwork on the Holderness Coast, Coastal Environments CPD – Erosional Erosion, Coastal Management, Deposition and Fieldwork on the Holderness Coast. What are the effects of deforestation in the Amazon? 2011).A second and larger eruption occurred on 14 April from the summit; this eruption continued until late May 2011 (Sigmundsson et al. What are active, dormant and extinct volcanoes? Water quality and pollution management in the UK. Publié: 23 avril 2010 0:00 CET. What are the differences in global calorie intake and food supply? The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano had a huge impact on air travel, changing the assessment of risk by the aviation sector and catalyzing new lines of scientific investigation. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. A burst of scientific articles has been published, including in special journal issues (Hasager et al, 2010; Langmann et al., 2012). Kenya’s flower council says the country was losing $1.3m a day in lost shipments to Europe. Opportunities and Challenges in the Sahara Desert, Opportunities and Challenges in the Thar Desert, Opportunities and Challenges in the Western Desert. During the eruption, a no-fly zone was imposed across much of Europe which meant airlines were losing around £130m per day. How have animals adapted to the rainforest environment? Where are the areas of water deficit and surplus in the UK? Local water supplies were contaminated with fluoride. What is the impact of humans on the Taiga? However, in this case, a combination of a settled weather pattern with winds blowing towards Europe, very fine ash and a persistent eruption lasting 39 days magnified the impact of a relatively ordinary event. What is the location and importance of Rio de Janeiro? Economic activities in glaciated upland areas, Glaciation Photo gallery – Goat Fell, Isle of Arran. If you've found the resources on this page useful please consider making a secure donation via PayPal to support the development of the site. Iceland is an MEDC (more economically developed country). The River Tees – landforms of erosion and deposition, Case Study – Ganges/Brahmaputra River Basin, Geological time is on a different time to human time, Different rocks create contrasting landforms and landscapes. It saw an increase of nearly a third, with 50,000 extra passengers travelling on their trains. The ash cloud brought European airspace to a standstill during the latter half of April 2010, and cost billions of euros in delays. On 14 April 2010, an explosive eruption began in the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. What does scenery formed by erosion look like? Based on those advisories, over 300 airports in about two dozen countries, and a correspondingly large airspace, were closed in Europe during 15-21 April 2010. The eruptions of Iceland's volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 were apparently triggered by a chain reaction of expanding magma chambers that descended into … Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). About the Volcano...• Eyjafjallajökull is the name of the glacier that sits on top of the volcano, meaning “Island Mountain Glacier”.• The volcano is actually called Eyjafjoll.• The caldera at the top of the volcano is 2.5km wide.• Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The site is self-funded and your support is really appreciated. The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. The Introduction to UKCA course will return for 2021 in a new, online format for PhD students and early career researchers. Iceland lies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin separating the North American Plate and the Eurasian plate. What are the different types of weathering? What is the structure of the tropical rainforest? Over 100,000 flights were cancelled over that week, affecting 7 million passengers, and resulting in $1.7 billion USD in lost revenue to airlines according to an analysis by Oxford Economics. How does geology affect the formation of river landforms? The price of shares in major airlines dropped between 2.5-3.3% during the eruption. Around 15 eruptions on this scale usually happen each year in Iceland. Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. How can we increase the amount of food produced globally? It ended 6 weeks later and was classified as a moderate size eruption with index 3 according to the Volcanic Explosive Index (VEI) based on the maximum plume height and magma discharge.1 Ash fall from the eruption is estimated to have been 270 million m 3 and the fine grained … Nine Functional Airspace Blocks (FABs) will replace the existing 27 areas. Two Earthquakes Compared – Nepal and L’Aquila, Lombok Indonesia Earthquake 2018 Case Study, 2018 Sulawesi Indonesia Earthquake and Tsunami Case Study. Homes and roads were damaged and services disrupted, crops were destroyed by ash and roads washed away. The ash plume that was created reached a height of 11 km. How are Nigeria’s trading and political relationships changing? The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). Effects of the eruption within Europe. You can find out how to pronounce Eyjafjallajokull on the BBC website. How do changes affect the balance of an ecosystem? You can read more about this on the Guardian website. How have plants adapted to cold environments? In April 2010, Eyjafjallajökull, a volcano in southern Iceland, began spewing several kilometres of volcanic ash into the atmosphere.The cloud of ash forced the greatest airspace closure since World War II, cancelling nearly 100,000 flights and disrupting the travel plans of tourists and business travelers alike throughout northern Europe. In 1967, there was a massive landslide on the Steinholtsjökull glacial tongue. How have animals adapted to cold environments? Fresh food imports stopped, and industries were affected by a lack of imported raw materials. The grounding of European flights prevented the emission of some 2.8m tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (according to the Environmental Transport Association). In Asia, Nissan declared a suspension in the production of three models in Japan on 21 April 2010 because supply of parts has been disrupted. Castleton A tourist honey pot in The Peak District, Case Study – Inner City Redevelopment – London’s Docklands. What is the site and situation of a settlement? What problems are caused by global warming? In the past, the UK has been affected by volcanic eruptions in Iceland, the most notable being the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions, which resulted in disruption of air traffic in the North Atlantic and Europe. What are the effects of economic development in Nigeria on quality of life? What is the Demographic Transition Model? The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. The IVATF included representatives from government and industry groups involved in aviation regulation, operations, and scientific investigations. What are the social and economic opportunities associated with the growth of Rio? Violent eruptions belched huge quantities of ash into the atmosphere. The significance of food, water and energy, An overview of global inequalities in the supply and consumption of resources, Carbon footprints, ‘food miles’ and moves towards local sourcing of food. What is the role of transnational companies in Nigeria? What is the difference between a tornado and a hurricane? Sustainable development in the desert – The Great Green Wall. Earthquakes and Eruptions in Iceland 2010 from hjalli on Vimeo. What is the structure of the Temperate Deciduous Woodland? Economic opportunities and challenges in Lagos. On the scientific front, there has been a notable increase in volcanic-cloud research since Eyjafjallajökull and the Cordon Caulle long-lived ash plume of 2011. Eyjafjallajökull 2010: How Icelandic volcano eruption closed European skies Ten years ago the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökul erupted, sending a … International Effects: The impact was felt as far afield as Kenya, where farmers have laid off 5000 workers after flowers and vegetables were left rotting at airports. What are shanty town improvement schemes? Businesses lost trade. What is the impact of humans on the desert? Why is the Human Development Index important? Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Icelandic volcano whose name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning ‘the island’s mountain glacier.’ Lying beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), its summit rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 meters) above sea level. What are the causes of deforestation in the Amazon? Tourist numbers increased significantly following the campaign, as shown in the graph below. Thu 15 Apr 2010 08.28 EDT As many as 800 people had to be evacuated after the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in southern Iceland erupted yesterday. Some 700 people were evacuated from the disaster zone three times in the past month. Tunisia Case Study. European Red Cross Societies mobilised volunteers, staff and other resources to help people affected directly or indirectly by the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull glacier volcano. Limestone Case Study – Malham, The Yorkshire Dales. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! How is demand for energy changing in the UK? Published: 23 April 2010 0:00 CET. A Response to the April 2010 Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Eruption Prepared by Alain Jeunemaitre and Chris Johnson {alain.jeunemaitre@polytechnique.edu, christopher.johnson@glasgow.ac.uk} On Behalf of the SESAR Scientific Committee, October 2010 Overview: This report provides a survey of the events following the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in April It saw an increase of nearly a third, with 50,000 extra passengers travelling on their trains. It caused the cancellation of thousands of flights across Europe and to Iceland. To reopen airspace, European aviation authorities endorsed the creation of a new type of concentration chart advisory product that delineated hazard zones based on dispersion model output of ash concentrations. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. Currently, concentration charts have only been adopted for operational use in Europe and the North Atlantic region, as outlined in Volcanic Ash Contingency Plan EUR and NAT Regions. There was a huge increase in passenger numbers on Eurostar. What factors influence the effects and response to tectonic activity? It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. Ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano deposited dissolved iron into the North Atlantic, triggering a plankton bloom, driving an increase in biological productivity. The nature of the volcanic hazard – type, frequency, magnitude [7] Eyjafjallajökull erupted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 (a flank eruption) and again from 14 April to 22 May 2010 (a summit eruption). Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. Weathering and mass movement in river valleys. Volcanic Ash Contingency Plan EUR and NAT Regions. I assume you are talking about human responses to the eruption, although it could be said the Earth and animals had responses as well. Eyjafjallajökull Icelandic Eruption 2010 1. How does flooding affect humans and the environment? The eruption was only 3 on the volcanic explosivity index (VEI). Where are polar and tundra environments located? What is chemical and mechanical weathering? (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Eyjafjallajokull is a volcano located in Iceland. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. Introduction. The scientific validity and operational utility of the ash concentration charts have been questioned by international experts and therefore have not been implemented outside Europe. 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. There was a huge increase in passenger numbers on Eurostar. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Changing rates of rainforest deforestation. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), pronounce Eyjafjallajokull on the BBC website. With the first eruption occurring on March 20, 2010, there was little explosive activity but some production of lava (Lund & Benediktsson, 2010). How does food insecurity affect the environment? How has hot desert vegetation adapted to the climate? Horticulture earned Kenya 71 billion shillings (£594m) in 2009 and is the country’s top foreign exchange earner. Overall, these eruptions have prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve the manner in which hazardous airspace is defined, forecast, and communicated. Protection of cold environments as wilderness areas. With a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of four, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was not one of the largest recorded eruptions, but the resulting damage was significant. On April 14th a new phase began which was much more explosive. What are the economic and environmental issues of energy production? An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull. The site is self-funded and your support is really appreciated. What is migration and why do people migrate? How do weather and climate affect river landscapes? They are providing food for the farming population living in the vicinity of the glacier, as Flooding was caused as the glacier melted. Following the negative publicity of the eruption, the Icelandic government launched a campaign to promote tourism. In the short term, the area around the volcano was evacuated. A case study of a sparsely populated area – Himalayan Mountains, A case study of a densely populated area – Greater London. Extreme weather in the UK – Beast from the East, Extreme Weather in the UK Summer Heatwave 2018. Geography. As the plates move apart, magma fills the magma chamber below Eyjafjallajokull. As passengers looked for other ways to travel than flying, many different transport companies were able to benefit. Almería in Spain: a large-scale agricultural development, Sustainable Food Supplies in an LIC – Bangladesh. How has rainforest vegetation adapted to the climate? Most Recent Weekly Report: 27 October-2 November 2010 Cite this Report. The eruption … The ash cloud brought European airspace to a standstill during the latter half of April 2010, and cost billions of euros in delays. So called 'low' ash concentrations were deemed to be defined as <2-4 mg/m3. Can the risks of volcanic eruptions be reduced? According to a news article from 27 October, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences noted that the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, that began as a fissure eruption on 20 March 2010 and later continued from the summit caldera on 14 April, was over. The price of shares in major airlines dropped between 2.5-3.3% during the eruption. The island itself lies on a constructive plate boundary where two plates are pulling apart. BGS scientists respond to volcanic eruptions and contribute to the Scientific Advisory Group in Emergencies (SAGE). Some 60 volunteers and staff of the Icelandic Red Cross have been working around the clock since the second eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 14 April. The grounding of European flights prevented the emission of some 2.8m tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (according to the Environmental Transport Association). What factors affect population density and distribution? Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers.The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. Use the images below to explore related GeoTopics. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), feeding many outlet glaciers. Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. Some 60 volunteers and staff of the Icelandic Red Cross have been working around the clock since the second eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 14 April. Travel was severely disrupted as many flights were cancelled between 14 and 21 April 2010. Causes : Eyjafjallajökull lay on the sixth biggest ice sheet in Iceland, approximately 100km2 – this resulted in excess flood water as the ice sheet melted. The eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in May 2010 resulted in the grounding of thousands of flights all over Europe. Sustainable Management of the Tropical Rainforest, Sustainable Management of the Amazon Rainforest. Although the eruptions were of small to moderate size, the ash produced during the latter eruption formed and maintained a 5–10‐km‐high eruption plume for … The IVATF finished its work in June 2012, and a record of its results is available. What are the air masses that affect the UK? Human and physical factors causing river flooding. Responses to Eyjafjallajökull? Inspired by Iceland was launched with the strategic intent of depicting the beauty of the country, the friendliness of its people and the fact that it was very much open for business. In this case, the two pates involved are the Atlantic and the Eurasian tectonic plate. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. Ash advisories derived from dispersion-model output were issued by the London VAAC, depicting the presence of ash over large parts of Europe and the North Atlantic. The concentration charts were adopted by air traffic management and airlines with the expectation that zones of low density ash could be transited with no or minimal risk of immediate aircraft damage providing a regime of enhanced risk assessment by airlines, including more frequent aircraft inspections, was adopted. What are the physical characteristics of cold environments? This means following a volcanic eruption in the future areas of air space may be closed, reducing the risk of closing all European air space. Jamaica Case Study, How can the growth of tourism reduce the development gap? The initial eruption caused a 500 metre fissure in a nearby pass. However, it should be noted that on the trade front, both imports and exports are being impacted across countries in Europe, so the net trade position was not affected markedly overall. Secondary effects: Sporting events were cancelled or affected due to cancelled flights. In one instance, people had to flee their homes in the middle of the night to escape from flash floods. The eruptions in March were mainly lava eruptions. Sustainable development in the Temperate Deciduous Woodland. Several magma chambers combined producing a volume of magma below the volcano. During the eruption, a no-fly zone was imposed across much of Europe which meant airlines were losing around £130m per day. In April 2010 the ash cloud from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano triggered the biggest aviation shutdown in Europe since World War II. The eruption began on 20th March 2010 and ended 7 months later in October 2010. Distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes, Effects of earthquakes and volcanoes on people and the environment, Reducing the impacts of earthquakes and volcanoes, Population and settlement – iGCSE Geography, The main causes of a change in population size, A country with a rate of high population growth – China, A country which is over-populated – Bangladesh, A country which is under-populated – Australia, A country with a low rate of population growth or decline – Japan. How has the vegetation in the temperate deciduous forest adapted to the climate? How has the growth of Lagos caused inequality? New phase began which was much more explosive increase the amount of food produced globally by an ice cap an! 2009 and is situated on two tectonic plates – the Great Green.... The campaign, as shown in the eyjafjallajökull eruption 2010 responses – Beast from the zone., magma fills the magma chamber below Eyjafjallajokull an ice cap biological productivity s trading and political changing! 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